(1) There will be no significant difference between the remedial methods and conventional methods with regard to achievement of language disabled.
(2) There will be no significant difference between language disabled boys and girls with regard to effect of remediation on achievement.
(3) There will be no significant difference between the urban & rural language disabled with regard to effect of remediation on achievement.
(4) There will be no interaction between two independent variables namely type of treatment and gender.
(5) There will be no interaction between two independent variables namely type of treatment & locality.
(6) There will be no interaction between two independent variables namely gender & locality of language disabled.
(7) There will be no interaction between three independent variables namely type of treatment, gender & locality.
Sample for the present study is obtained from different schools of Bareilly city of Uttar Pradesh studying in IIIrd and IVth standards. In order to achieve the objectives and verify the hypothesis of the study, the schools were selected randomly following either CBSE, ICSE or UP board syllabus and located in urban, semi-urban & rural areas of Bareilly city. All the children were administered tests for identification of language disabilities and out of 740 only 96 were selected on the basis of specific criteria adopted for identification of language disabilities. Among 96 subjects selected, 52 were boys and the remaining 44 were girls.
1. Behavioural Checklist for Screening The Learning Disabled (B.C.S.L.D) - This checklist was developed by Dr. Smriti Swarup and Dr. D.H. Mehta of SNDT Women s University, Mumbai. With the help of this checklist, it becomes easier to screen out the children from a regular class who are not performing well, showing inconsistent results, in school examination and have some problems which are not apparent but cause a serious damage to the child s personality development and his development in other social areas. The checklist consists of 30 positive and negative items to be filled in by the teacher. Reliability coefficient for the half test was 0.61 and reliability coefficient for the full test was found to be 0.76. Content Validity of the test was established by taking the expert opinions regarding the coverage of the characteristics, number of items and the item construction.
2. Raven s Standard Progressive Matrices - The Raven s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) is a test of a person s capacity at the time of the test to apprehend meaningless figures presented for his observation, see the relations between them, conceive the nature of the figure completing each system of relations presented, and by so doing, develop a systematic method of reasoning. The scale consists of 60 problems divided into five sets of 12.
3.Diagnostic Test of Learning Disability (DTLD) - This test was developed by Dr. Smriti Swarup and D.H. Mehta of S.N. D.T. Women s University, Mumbai. Diagnostic test of Learning Disability identification is a test to identity those children who experience learning problems. The purpose of this diagnostic tool is to find out the locus of the problem. This test is divided into ten areas. The reliability coefficient and reliability index for the ten sub-tests and the total are .79 and .89 respectively and the validity of the test was examined by content validity & construct validity.
4.Grade Level Assessment Device for Children with learning problems in schools (GLAD) -This device was developed by Jayanthi Narayan (1997) of NIMH, Secunderabad to assess the learning problems of primary school children. The device had taken into account the standard curricular content of class 1 to IVth in India and items were selected from the existing curriculum. The co-efficient of 0.99 and 0.68 for IIIrd & IVth classes respectively indicates that the test is highly reliable. Criterion validity of the test was established by taking a sample of 10 children who have been taken 65 from the class and tested with the content one class lower. For each class from 1 to IV in each subject area the exercise was carried out. The correlations of the scores obtained for class IIIrd and IVth are 0.76 and 0.74 respectively indicates that the test is valid for respective classes.
This study is experimental in nature and was carried out on children identified as language disabled and studying in IIIrd & IVth standards. The selected children were randomly divided into two equal groups out of the two groups one was randomly assigned to experimental group and the other to the control group. The experimental group language disabled were given tests to find out the strengths and weaknesses while solving different types of tasks. Depending upon the type and nature of mistakes remedial treatment was provided, where as the control group language disabled were as usual exposed to conventional methods. After completion of the remedial treatment to experimental group language disabled both the groups were administered a standardized grade level assessment test in language, in which they were studying as the post test. Scores on the pre & post test of the both the groups were compared to see the effect of remedial treatment provided to the experimental group. In the above design the independent variables are type of treatment, Gender & Locality . The dependent variable is achievement of language disabled.In the present study, the researcher had tried to find out the effect of remediation on achievement of language disabled and thus, he had conducted a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment with a randomized group design which had helped the researcher to analyze the effect of remediation and double and triple interaction effects. To study intra and inter factors, t-values were computed.
1. There is a significant difference between the mean scores of achievement of two treatment groups. This finding infers that remedial treatment methods are superior to conventional treatment methods.
2. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of achievement of language disabled boys and girls. This finding infers that language disabled boys do not differ from language disabled girls with regard to achievement in language.
3. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of achievement of urban and rural language disabled. This finding infers that, urban language disabled do not differ from rural with regard to achievement in language.
4. The interaction between type of treatment and gender is found significant. This finding infers that type of treatment and gender has significant effect on the achievement of language disabled.
5. The interaction between type of treatment and locality was found insignificant. This finding infers that type of treatment and gender does not have any significant effect on the achievement of language disabled.
6. The interaction between gender and locality was found insignificant. This finding infers that gender and locality do not have any significant effect on the achievement of language disabled.
7. The interaction between type of treatment, gender and locality was found insignificant. This finding infers that type of treatment; gender and locality do not have any significant effect on the achievement of language disabled.
1. Since language disabled find it very difficult to learn reading and writing even in one language, They should be allowed to study all the subjects through mother tongue; and languages other than mother tongue should be introduced at later years of schooling and even then, they should be considered for grade promotion.
2. Because of language disability there is every possibility for language disabled to lag behind in other academic subjects also. As a result there is a considerable gap in the amount of knowledge between language disabled and normal readers. In order to minimize such a gap during the lower primary level, i.e. grade I to Vth, considerable time should be devoted to improve reading and writing among them.
3. Instead of prescribing text books for science and social sciences, children of primary schools should acquire the above knowledge through multi-media experience and active participation.
4. The mastery of any academic subject should be tested orally rather than through writing at the lower primary level. Thus the load on the language disabled can be reduced. As a consequence they can be easily motivated for academic achievement.
5. Since children with marked difference in learning are admitted to the same school, the teacher should select such methods of teaching reading which takes into consideration the differential ability among children to acquire the skills of language disabled.
6. The programme books to teach reading and writing should be supplemented to the prescribed textbooks for all the children of grade-1. These books with instructions may guide not only teachers but also parents, so that they can supplement the efforts made at school in enabling their children to master reading and writing skills.
7. A survey may be conducted of schools opting for remedial strategies in teaching language for language disabled.
8. The remedial programmes developed for language disabled are helpful in improving reading performance among other categories like educable mentally retarded slow learners, socially disadvantaged and emotionally disturbed.
Keyword(s): Diagnosis, Remediation, Language Disabilities