The objectives of study were: (1) To study the status of moral judgment and moral self-concept and the relationship of the two among school going adolescents. (2) To study the patterns of moral judgment and moral self-concept across gender, grade and habitat. (3) To study the impact of home environment, father education, mother education, socio-moral, home environment, moral reasoning orientation, value conflict and intelligence abilities: verbal, numerical and reasoning on moral judgment and moral self-concept. (4) To develop the teaching strategies in the existing curriculum of social studies and adopt them in classroom for moral judgment development. (5) To comprehend the role of personal attributes and role - play situation in the socio-cultural environment responsible for high or low moral judgment development.
The Ex-post facto sample contained 345 boys and 286 girls. The experimental sample contained 31 students in experimental group and 26 students in control group.The sample for indepth investigation contained 19 high and 14 low P-scores from 8 Gender X Grade X Habitat interaction group.
The following tools were used to collect the data: (1) Defining Issue Test of Moral Judgment developed by Rest that was adopted by the investigator in Hindi. The test-retest reliability for long form was 0.70 to 0.80 and 0.58 to 0.83 for short form, (2) Moral self-concept index developed by investigator, (3) Socio-Moral Home Environment Scale developed by investigator, (4) General Mental Ability Test (Hindi) developed by Jalota, (5) 16 Personality Factors questionnaire by Cattell (adapted in Hindi by Kapoor) and (6) Interview schedule
This was a Quasi Experimental Study.
T-test, Chi-square, product moment correlation, 3 way ANOVA and canonical correlation were used to analyze the data.
The findings of study were: (1) The school going adolescents scored low on moral judgment (P-index). The subjects have highest scores on stage 3 and 4 that characterize conventional morality. It pointed to conformist and authority maintaining orientations among the adolescents, (2) The subjects were not normally distributed over moral self-concept. (3) Moral judgment is independent of moral self-concept. (4) On gender categorization, boys excelled girls on moral judgment. (5) No significant difference was observed on moral judgment on the basis of grade. (6) On grade categorization, XI graders excelled IX graders on moral self-concept. (7) On habitat categorization, there was no significant difference on moral judgment. (8) Urban and rural adolescents didn’t differ significantly on moral self-concept. (9) Boys of grade XI were superior on moral judgment to the boys of grade IX. (10) Girls of grade XI were lower on moral judgment than the girls of grade IX. (11) Rural girls were higher on moral self-concept than the rural boys. (12) Composite of home environment characteristics and intelligence abilities contribute for moral judgment and moral self-concept composite. (13) Moral self-concept is facilitated by home environment characteristics and intelligence abilities to a large extent. (14) Moral judgment is facilitated by home environment and intelligence abilities only among boys of IX graders. (15) MRO and negative VC of social-moral home environment and verbal intelligence were most common predictors of moral judgment moral self-concept. (16) MRO was the best facilitator of the moral judgment – moral self-concept. (17) VC was the most suppressor of moral judgment moral self-concept. (18) Mother education, numerical intelligence and reasoning intelligence were group specific contributors for moral judgment – moral self-concept. (19) Father education was weakest contributors for moral judgment – moral self-concept among the adolescents. (20) Experimental teaching strategy was found to be superior to the treatment by placebo in developing the moral judgment among the adolescents. (21) Experimental teaching strategy was found to be more effective in developing the moral judgment among the subjects on pre-test with low P-scores and having less education of parents. (22) There was no significant gender difference in the development of moral judgment by experimental teaching strategies. (23) Comparison on the stages of moral judgment found sequential development towards higher stages of moral judgment in experimental group where as control group showed no development. (24) VC in Indian home environment obstructs the development of moral judgment among the adolescents. (25) NI didn’t facilitate the development of moral judgment. (26) ME indicated a trend towards facilitation of moral judgment development. (27) No differences were observed among high and low P scores on personality factors. (28) Persons with quality of empathy to others, sensitivity to social or natural problems, value ideals of truth, conscience orientation and cognitive abilities are high on moral judgment. (29) Families with inductive child rearing practices, empathy, sensitivity to social and natural problems and social participation provide socio-cultural role-taking interaction opportunities to the adolescents necessary for moral judgment development. (30) Qualities perceived by children among their models in the family are important ingredients for moral judgment development among them. (31) Involvement of adolescents in various activities, work fields and their social participation provide them social cognitive. (32) Democratic and non-authoritarian homes of adolescents constitute din family matters and decision making, provide opportunities for moral judgment development among them. (33) School is a social structure with its socio-moral atmosphere and morally advanced behavior of teachers provide role-play opportunities to the students for moral development. (34) Qualities perceived by adolescents in their favorite leaders provide them cognitive role-play sets for identification. (35) Co-operative and interactive relations in the neighborhood provide more opportunities for social interactions. (36) Though this is specifically in reference to two individual subjects that role of media, guilt and caste indicated some relationship with development of moral judgment. (37) Conformist behavior and money orientation obstruct the development of moral judgment.
Keyword(s): Adolescents, Moral Judgment