The study focuses on identifying the causes of stress among the police officials in Indian context and its implications on psychological health of the police officials
H1 : Work family conflict has an inverse relationship with the psychological health of the employees H2 : Work overload has an inverse relationship with psychological health of the employees. H3 : Perceived organizational support has direct relationship with psychological health of the employees. H4a: Stress mediates the relationship between work family conflict & psychological health. H4b: Stress mediates the relationship between work overload & psychological health. H4c: Stress mediates the relationship between perceived organization support & psychological health. H5: Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between stress & psychological health such that EI strengthens the effect of stress on psychological health.
The sample population was the police officials working in the cities of Uttarakhand region namely: Roorkee, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Dehradun, Mussoorie, Haldwani and Nainital cities working on the positions of constable, head-constable, sub-inspector and inspector. Convenience Sampling was used. Sample size = 598 35.11% (210) were females and 64.88% (388) were males. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 18- 28 years (62.87%) and were graduates (66.38%). The sample selected involved police officials working at the post of constable, head-constable and sub-inspector, amongst which majority were at the constable level (54.18%), with an experience of 1-10 years (64.38%)
WFC =Cronbach s Î± is 0.88, Work overload =0.93, POS =0.88, Emotional Intelligence =0.96, stress = 0.87, Psychological health =Î± = 0.95
The present study follows a descriptive research design taking into account the quantitative approach for data collection and data analysis. Convenience sampling technique was used for the process of data collection, considering the time and resource constraint for the study.The questionnaires used in the study are standard questionnaires, which have been tested in Indian context during the pilot study.
Descriptive Statistics, Mediation & Moderation Analysis, Structural Equation Modelling (CFA)
The results obtained show that the direct effect of work family conflict on psychological health is negative in nature (-0.52, p<0.00) which proves the hypothesis 1. The second hypothesis assumes that the Work overload has a negative relationship with psychological health. On testing this, the assumption was found to be true since the direct effect of WO on that of PH of the policemen was negative (-0.14 , p<0.00) as indicated by the beta value (regression weight). Similarly, the third hypothesis assumed that the perceived organizational support has a positive 83 relationship with psychological health and the as per the results of the analysis (0.25, p<0.00), POS has a positive relationship with the PH, thus proving the 3rd hypothesis.Further, to test the mediation effect of stress in between the 3 IDVs and the DV, fourth hypothesis was sub-categorized in 3 diff hypotheses (H4a, H4b and H4c) stating that stress mediates the relationship between work family conflict & psychological health (H4a; WFC stress: 0.10 (p<0.01); Stress PH: -0.11, p<0.00), stress mediates the relationship between work overload & psychological health (H4b; WO Stress: 0.22 (p<0.00), Stress PH: -0.13 (p<0.00)) and stress mediates the relationship between perceived organization support & psychological health (H4c; POS stress: -0.28 (p<0.00), stress PH: -0.10 (p<0.01)).The 87 results of the analysis (fig. 8) show a significant relationship between the stress and the psychological health along with the significant indirect effects of the IDVs on DV, obtained from the results of the SOBEL test. The indirect effect of the IDVs on DV (WFC-PH (SOBEL z) = âˆ’1.89, p < 0.05, WO-PH (SOBEL z) = âˆ’2.84, p < 0.00, POS-PH= SOBEL z = 2.28, p < 0.02) was verified with a two-tailed significance test (assuming a normal distribution), i.e. the SOBEL test. Also, the results of bootstrap validated the results of the SOBEL test (see Table 8a, 8b, 8c), with 95% CI, which did not contain zero (WFC-PH = (-.03, -.01), WO-PH= (-.07, -.01), POS-PH= (.01, .07). Hence, hypothesis 4 (4a, 4b and 4c) was supported.emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between stress and psychological health such that low EI strengthens the effect of stress on psychological health and the effect was found significant (EI- PH= 0.243 (p<0.00; Stress- PH= -0.124 (p<0.05); Interaction (Stress* EI) = -0.129 (p<0.05))
Present study contributes to the moderating literature of ability emotional intelligence by identifying the role of EI in-between the relationship of stress with psychological health. Past studies have explored extensively the other dimension of EI i.e. the trait emotional intelligence win relation with the various behavioral concepts, but ability emotional intelligence has been an area of minimal research that has been explained in detail in the present study. Moreover, the variables under study were assessed in the light of conservation of resource model that gave a strong foundation for the study and mapping/understanding the model w.r.t. COR theory was a novel effort and gave a different perspective to the whole concept, since perceiving emotions as resources to overcome stress is an entirely new concept that has rarely been explained/proved statistically in behavioral sciences. Even though studies have been carried out on the variables under study in western countries, this integrated model is the first to be studied in context of Indian police, which has entirely different work settings as compared to the other countries due to the cultural diversity and varied demographics. Present study has also attempted to direct the attention of the higher authorities towards the issues faced by the employees and hampers their normal psychological functioning which ultimately affects their work. Also, the study contributes to the mediating literature of stress, as the findings report that stress has a mediating nature in between the IDVs and the DV. Although extensive research has been carried out in the area of police stress, no significant studies have been done in the Indian context. This study contributes to the existing literature by developing a comprehensive model of constructs that considers two dimensions, the organizational level and the individual level in the context of Indian working conditions. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, it was revealed that a high amount of workload and work family conflict was the major reason behind the increasing stress levels of police officials. The present study applied the conservation of resource theory to understand the adverse effects of stress on the health of police officials in an ethnically diverse developing country like India. Based on the study findings, it could be seen that the issues concerning Indian police officials do not differ remarkably from police officials in developed countries.
Keyword(s): Stress , psychological health, emotional intelligence