This study is designed to seek the answers of some research questions such as: 1. What kind of technical resources are available in teacher training colleges? 2. What is the perception of English teacher educators and pupil teachers towards integration of technology in teaching of English? 3. What is the scope of utilizing technical resources in teaching of English? The objectives of the study are as follows:1.To study the availability of technical resources related to English language teaching in teacher training institutes. 2. To study the perception of English teacher educators regarding the integration of technology in teaching of English. 3. To study the perception of pupil teachers regarding the integration of technology in teaching of English. 4. To study the use of available technical resources by pupil teachers during teaching learning process into the classroom.
The Population of this study comprised all the teacher training colleges/institutions of Delhi. In order to select the participants for the present study, researcher obtained the list of colleges/institutions of Delhi state from the website of University Grant Commission (www.ugc.ac.in) to ensure the affiliation and status of teacher training colleges. Based on the comprehensive list obtained from the website of University Grant Commission the researcher chose two Government Universities i.e. colleges/teacher training institutions of Delhi University and Jamia Millia Islamia and one State University i.e. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University’s self-financed colleges/teacher training institutes which were offering B.Ed (Bachelor of Education) programme. All the teacher training institutes running Bachelor of Education programme were implementing the same curriculum for teaching of English. All the teacher training institutes were controlled by Central government and State government respectively.
The sample of twenty six English teacher educators in total has been selected purposively. There was one teacher educator in every teacher training institute who were taking teaching of English as a methodology paper in the Bachelor of Education programme. Thus, sample consists of four teacher educators from Government University’s teacher training colleges and twenty two teacher educators from State University’s self-financed teacher training colleges.
One hundred fifty pupil teachers under taking Bachelor of Education programme from Government and State teacher training institutions and who opted teaching of English as one of their teaching subjects have been selected proportionately for the present study. Fifty students have been selected from the four Government teacher training colleges of Delhi University namely Central Institute of Education, Maharshi Valmiki College of Education, Shyama Prasad Mukherji College and Institute of Advance Studies in Education of Jamia Millia Islamia. For the selection of pupil teachers from self-financed colleges of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, the researcher selected ten colleges out of twenty two colleges. During data collection from the teacher training institutes, researcher found that these ten colleges were equipped with technical resources in the context of teaching of English. Based on this information one hundred pupil teachers have been selected proportionately.
All the tools were constructed by researcher. For the two groups of respondents that is English teacher educators who were teaching English as a methodology paper and pupil teachers who opted teaching of English as a methodology paper in Bachelor of Education programme. Questions to be answered were, more or less on the same aspects, except some questions which were unique to each group.Tools for the Study :1.Teacher Training Institutes Check list 2.English Teacher Educators Ø Open- ended questionnaireØ OpinionnaireØ Semi-structured Interview3.Pupil Teachers Ø Open- ended questionnaire Ø OpinionnaireØ Classroom observation schedule.Validity of the tools:In order to test the validity, researcher sought the judgment of experts. The experts were selected from the different higher education institutions. The selection of the experts was carried with regard to the following axes:-(i)Experts of English language teaching (ii)Experts of educational technology(iii) Experts with methodological and pedagogical implication of using technical resources in English teaching learning process.All the tools prepared by researcher were submitted to the experts. After analyzing the tools experts coincides that the tools contained precise items that would shed some light on the topic. The comments and observations recommended and certain modifications on the part of the experts included. Once the above mentioned modifications had been made by researcher, the tools sent back to the experts and to the supervisor of the doctoral thesis.
This research study was designed to answer three research questions. First, what kind of technical resources are available in teacher training colleges? Second, what is the perception of English teacher educators and pupil teachers’ towards the integration of technology in teaching of English? Thirdly, what is the scope of utilization of technical resources in teaching of English? Thus, to answer these research questions “Qualitative Descriptive Research Methodology" in the form of “Survey Research method" was best suited method for the present study. This method was in consonance with the objectives of the study.
All the data collected from different tools that are checklist, questionnaire, opinnionnaire, interview, classroom observation were read several times in order to find recurring areas. The areas which emerged from the data collected were interpreted and categorized by preparing a master sheet from the raw data. The outcomes were written up in descriptive, interpretive and analytical ways. Initially, questionnaire and interviews recording were summarized and transcribed. Classroom observation notes analyzed in order to know the in-depth information with regard to the objectives of present study. Than all the raw data were transferred to the excel sheet for coding. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistical method in terms of frequency, percentage distribution and summarized in the forms of tables which are presented in subsequent chapters.
Availability of technical resources in teacher training institutes:It was found that technical resources in computers labs such as internet connection, computers, projectors, audio-visual aids, and audio-video recordings were available in Government teacher training institutes. Other resources like CDs on English grammar were available but CDs on pronunciation, word power, e-dictionaries were not available. Audio-recordings of poems were available which were accessed by pupil teachers as and when required. Video recordings of guest lectures were available recorded during seminars, conferences etc. Video recordings of play, drama, poetry was not available. Pupil teachers of Government teacher training institutes developed CALL programmes so that they could incorporate them in their practice teaching.
The Private teachers training institutes were equipped with technical resources. CDs based on C.B.S.E text books were available along with e-dictionaries, grammar exercises, and word-power and pronunciation builder. But no audio/video recordings were available on lectures and poems, drama, plays etc.
Perception of English Teacher Educators and Pupil Teachers about the Methods and Approaches to teaching English. It was found that teacher educators of both Government and Private teacher training institutes considered communicative approach of teaching English as most effective along with Bilingual method and multimedia approach, whereas the direct method, audio-lingual method and the structural approach were completely discarded.In case of Pupil teachers of Government and Private teacher training institutes, they considered communicative approach, bilingual method and multimedia approach as effective methods of teaching English and they did not supported direct method, grammar-cum-translation method and structural approach as an effective methods.
Perception of English teacher educators and Pupil teachers about the Integration of Technology in Teaching of English
The findings indicate that both teacher educators of Government and Private teacher training institutes were well aware about multimedia, smart screens and mobile technology and they had heard about the language software’s but they did not possess any knowledge about the other tools of language teaching such as Web Quest, portfolio development and Corpora software. Teacher educators only confined themselves to the use of computers, internet and somehow power-point presentation which is not enough now a days when twenty first era is transforming education through the technology.As far as the knowledge of pupil teachers was concerned, those in the Government teacher training institutes were well aware about the multimedia, online quiz, smart board and engaged in developing language program but they possessed less knowledge about the language software such as Hot potatoes, Audacity, portfolio development. Whereas private pupil teachers hardly possessed knowledge about multimedia, online quiz and CALL programs. Pupil teachers of Government and Private teacher training institutes reported that they did not have any knowledge about Corpora software, Web Quest and Portfolio development.Barriers in Integration of Technology by teacher educators and pupil teachers:(i)Teacher educators and pupil teacher complained that non-availability of language software, inadequate resources in language teaching restricted them in using technology.(ii)Teacher educators and pupil teachers also perceived inadequate knowledge of language tools and lack of professional staff as a barrier. It was found that no teacher educator considered the linguistic background of the pupil teachers as a barrier which made them resistant towards using technology. In the opinion of teacher educators the idea of using technology did not make them nervous and it was not difficult to learn in their age but teacher educators and pupil teachers reported that lack of regular training stopped them to use technology. Somehow lack of time to prepare content obstructed teacher educators and pupil teachers to use technology.
Expectation of English teacher educators and pupil teachers.Considering the different barriers faced by teacher educators and pupil teachers in integration of technology in teaching of English, they expected well equipped language lab and computer lab with properly trained staff so that their problems may be quickly solved by the IT coordinators. Teacher educators also emphasized regular training which may help them to inculcate necessary skills for using technical resources in language teaching. Teacher educators expressed the need of an introductory course on integration of technology in teaching of English in B.Ed programme which comprised of course content based on the knowledge of different language software’s such as Blogs, Wiki, Web Quest, Corpora, Hot Potatoes, etc. They also expressed the need for tutorials on different computer applications along with guidelines of using these applications. Accordingly, teacher educator must be acquainted with the trends of ICT and they must be trained in developing CALL programs.
Technology Integration in Language Classroom
As far as the opinions of English teacher educators and pupil teachers were concerned, it was found that teacher educators and pupil teachers of both the Government and Private teacher training institutes agreed about the need for renewal of teaching methodology. Teacher educators and pupil teachers were aware of the need and necessity to change the scenario of language teaching classroom by adapting the latest technology.The responses of teacher educators depicted that technology has helped to cover the topics such as grammar, prose, poetry which were beyond the description without addition of graphical contents.
Implications for Academic administrators and Teacher Training Institutes
· Teacher training institutes must pay attention to establish a good technological environment comprising of well-equipped language lab/computer lab, latest language tools and software’s which can assist teacher educators and pupil teachers in the teaching learning process.
· Teacher educators and pupil teachers should be regularly oriented with the latest technology in language teaching and recent trends through short term courses, orientation programs, workshops and seminars.· Teacher training institutes need to arrange face-to-face interactive sessions with IT professionals who can train language teachers and pupil teachers in developing, creating and operating different language tools and software.· Practice teaching is to be organized in such a manner where pupil teachers can prepare some lesson plans with the help of ICT based on prose, poetry, grammar topics and get a chance to teach these topics with the help of available technical resources.
Implications for English Teacher Educators
· Teacher educators should update their knowledge about the current trends of integrating technology in English language teaching.
· Teacher educators should plan some sessions with pupil teachers in which they can work on developing some media-instructed lesson plans on different topics of English.
· Teacher educators should develop a positive attitude towards technology integration in language teaching. Therefore, their practices of using technology in language teaching will help the students in developing language skills.
Implications for Pupil Teachers
· Pupil teachers try to prepare lesson plans covering those spaces where they can integrate technology in language classroom.
· Pupil teachers should visit computer lab regularly which helps them in developing language skills and facilitate language learning to enable them to use language outside the classroom with ease and comfort.
Suggestions for further research
Several suggestions can be made for further researches which complement the research undertaken in this study by extending the region of investigation.1. A similar study may be conducted for B.El.Ed. (Bachelor of Elementary Education) and E.T.E (Elementary Teacher Education) programs offered by different Universities where teaching of English is offered as a methodology paper. 2. The present study covered only B.ED teacher training institutes of Central and State universities and colleges. A study may be conducted on the Government and Private schools which are infusing technology in teaching of English. 3. A survey study could be conducted to know the perceptions of school teachers teaching English through smart classes and the effect of technology oriented instructions on the student’s language learning. 4. Present study analyzes the perception of English teacher educators and pupil teachers. Data could be collected on the views of the academic administrators to get the wider perspective on the factors contributing to and discouraging the use of technology and implementation of ICT in English language teaching. 5. A study may be conducted to observe the effectiveness of technology on the learning of English language, development of language skills and understanding the technicalities of language among pupil teachers of different linguistic background