The Objectives of the Study: 1. To study the quality of life of the tribal of Keonjhar District. 2. To find out the differences in quality of life among different tribes of Keonjhar District. 3. To identify the aspects of quality of life affecting the status of various tribes of Keonjhar district. 4. To analyse the effect of educational status of tribal communities on quality of life.5. To critically examine the role of various educational measures to improve the quality of life of the tribals of Keonjhar District. 6. To formulate strategies to improve the quality of life of the tribals of Keonjhar District.
The hypotheses formulated were:1. There is no significant difference in the quality of life of the different tribes of Keonjhar. 2. Status of quality of life of various tribes of Keonjhar District does not affect significantly. 3. There is no significant effect of educational development on the quality of life of various tribes of Keonjhar District. 4. There is no significant role of various measures in the improvement of quality of life of tribals of Keonjhar district. 5. Manipulation of various factors does not affect the quality of life of tribals of Keonjhar district.
The study has been well delimited to four tribal blocks of Keonjhar district, namely, Ghatagaon, Harichandanpur, Banspal and Telkoi. It has been further delimited to four communities, namely, Kolha, Santal, Juanga and Bhuyan of 24 tribal villages. Out of 13 blocks of Keonjhar district 4 blocks have been selected randomly for the study. 480 tribal households have been selected employing stratified random sampling.
Identification of the Tribal Communities Survey Schedule, Village Survey Schedule, Tribal Household Interview Schedule, Educational Development Programme Information Schedule and Tribal Household Observation Schedule were the tools used.
The analytical description survey method has been suitably employed for the study.
Percentage analysis, mean analysis and graphical representation have been done suitably. Qualitative analysis has also been done, wherever required.
Findings of the study were: • Large sections of the families ( 54.38%) of Kolha, Santal, Juanga and Bhuyan tribes were the medium size family having 4 to 6 members. However, Kolha and Santal were having more small size family ( 1 to 3 members) than Juanga and Bhuyan households. • Majority of tribal people (66.51%) were found illiterate. In four tribes it was greater. Females were more illiterate (72.73%) than male population of the tribals. Juang and Bhuyan tribes were found educationally backward as compared to Kolha and Santal tribes. • Wage earning, cultivation, forest product collection, hunting and fishing were the major occupation of the 85.42% of tribal households. Occupational status of Kolha and Santal Tribes were found better than that of Juanga and Bhuyan Tribes. • Food habits of about 50% of tribal households were not satisfactory. But food habits of Kolha and Santal Tribes were found better than that of Juanga and Bhuyan Tribes. • The majority of tribal households were using traditional source of energy, such as, firewood, cow dung cakes, and kerosene because of lack of purchasing power, lack of supply of other sources, less awareness about sources of energy. • The social system of tribal households was based on the beliefs of magic and rituals , compulsory marriage, patriarchal family, child marriage, community living, organization of youth dormitory, more importance to priests in their society, role of astrologer-cum-sorcery in society life, prohibition of marriage in same clan. Kolha and Santal communities were found comparatively civilized to some extent and free from blind belief than Juang and Bhuyan communities. • More than 50% of Kolha and Santal households were applying new technologies in cutivation, fishing, food gathering, food processing, hunting and preparation of houses, whereas, approximately 25% of Juanga and 30% of Bhuyan households were found using new technologies in different productions, processing and preparation activities. • Necessary amenities and services, such as, road, schooling facility, drinking water, housing, supply of electricity, plantation, health services and drainage system etc. had been provided to sample tribal areas of Keonjhar district through socio-economic development programmes, • All tribal communities had received benefits from educational programmes, income generating activities, non-formal training, awareness programme, social forestry, housing scheme, health programme of NGOs of sample areas of Keonjhar district. 2 • More number of Educational Development Programs were implemented in different villages of Ghatgaon and Harichandanpur blocks in comparison to Bansapal and Telkoi blocks. • The level of living, population dynamics, and socio-political system, process of development and availability of resources are the major indicators of quality of life. All these indicators are invariably affecting the quality of life of the tribals of Keonjhar district. • Kolha and Santal were found having higher status of quality of life in comarison to Juanga and Bhuyan. There is significant difference in the quality of life of the different tribes of Keonjhar district. • Educational status scores of Kolha and Santal were higher than Juanga and Bhuyan tribes. Also, the status of quality of life of Kolha and Santal Tribes was found higher than that of Juanga and Bhuyan Tribes. So there has been found a positive significant effect of educational development on the quality of life of various tribes of Keonjhar district. • Kolha and Santal communities availed of more educational facilities from different Educational Development Programmes in comparison to Juanga and Bhuyan Communities. There has bben found a positive effect of Educational Development Programmes on quality of life. So, there is a significant role of educational measures on improvement of quality of life of the tribals of Keonjhar district.
Keyword(s): Tribals of Keonjhar, Educational Development