The objectives of study were: (1) To study the historical development of pre-service training of secondary teachers’ in Maharashtra. This objective has following specifications- (a) To study the historical development of secondary teachers training in the pre-independence period. (b) To study the historical development of secondary teachers training in the post-independence period. (2) To study the present condition of Secondary Teachers Education Program (STEP): (a) To study the nature of B.Ed. colleges (TEIs). (b) To study the nature of buildings of TEIs. (c) To study the various aspects of physical facilities provided therein. (d) To study the various aspects of student population in TEIs. (f) To study the various aspects of curricular program implemented in TEIs. (g) To study the various aspects of co-curricular program followed in TEIs. (h) To study the views of teacher educators on various aspects of the STEP. (i) To study the views of teacher educators on various aspects of the STEP. (j) To make the recommendations to improve the STEP, wherever necessary. (3) To study the views of teacher-educators on various aspects of the STEP. (4) To study the views of student-teachers and trained teachers on various aspects of the STEP. (5) To make recommendations to improve the STEP, wherever necessary.
Sample consisted of the first hand sources like official minutes, acts, charters, records, the reports of department of education universities and councils, various commission reports, history of teacher education, encyclopedia, directories, research abstracts etc.The data were tested for their authenticity and reliability by using internal and external criticism techniques. Sample comprised of 65 TETs, 100 teacher educators, 250 student-teachers and trained teachers of Maharashtra
For normative survey – questionnaire for principals, teacher-educators, student-teachers and trained teaches were prepared by the investigators.
The study was historical and descriptive types.The normative survey method was used.
Data were analyzed by using percentage method.
The findings of study were: (1) The memorial system, the unique system to train future teachers, with their simultaneous learning was in vigor in indigenous schools since time immemorial. (2) The system is of Indian origin. It is admitted by many contemporary official reports and also admired for its utility, easiness, economy, effectiveness and efficiency. (3) The Bell-Lancaster system is the improvised and systematized form of monitorial system. (4) The modern period in the History of the STEP started when Europeans started settling in India. (5) In the modern period, first missionaries played important role in creating suitable ground for teacher training. They revived and improvised the declining monitorial system. However, their teacher training activities were limited to the training of missionary school teachers only. The training activities were sporadic and unsystematized. (6) In the company period, the seeds of the teacher training were sowed and teacher training activities were more systematized. (7) In the Bombay Presidency during the company period, Mountstuart Elphinstone, Bombay Native Education Society, Elphinstone institution and Bombay Board of Education played important role in the systematization and growth of the STEP. (8) In the Bombay Presidency during the Company period, the training was based on the Bell-Lancaster system and it was used to train vernacular teachers. The training was subject matter oriented and methodology and pedagogy were almost lacking. Therefore, there was no any remarkable difference between the normal school and general schools. (9) In the presidency, during the company period, there were facilities to train high school teachers and this was because of the less number of high school teachers. High school teachers were mainly imported from England and the conviction prevailing in the contemporary England that the colleges were the best normal schools for high school teachers and this had its echoes in the British India, especially in the Bombay Presidency for a very long time. (10) In India, the peculiar practice of appointing education commissions to review and to recommend, was started from the Victorian period and the practice is still in voyage. (11) The Woods Dispatch first time gave clear cut directions regarding the training of high school teachers. (12) In presidency, the DPIs instead of following the Directions of the Dispatch followed the prominent views and practices to train high school teachers in contemporary England. (13) In the Presidency, during the Victorian period, besides education commissions, the Governors and DPIs also played important role in the history of the STEP. (14) In the Presidency, in the Victorian period, almost all the DPIs were apathetic regarding the training of high school teachers, and this was because they were followers of the prominent views and practices followed regarding training of high school teachers in the contemporary England. Their apathy and particular views put an unsurmountable obstacle in the growth and development of the STEP frequently. (15) In the Presidency, according to the all DPIs of the Victorian period, the university was the great Normal school for high school teachers. Therefore, there was no need of training college for high school teachers. This particular view placed insurmountable obstacle in the further growth of the STEP, although Madras and Lahore took lead in this regard. (16) In the Presidency, in the Victorian period, it was only because of the bold views of Lord Curzon on training of secondary teachers and his Educational Resolutions the training of secondary teachers got accelerated. Only because of the attempts made by him, the regular training college for secondary teachers was established at Bombay. The views of Lord Curzon on training of secondary teachers gave new vistas. (18) Lord Curzon elaborate efforts caused the establishment of Secondary Training College at Bombay to train secondary teachers. (19) From 1906 to 1934, the secondary training college was the only training college in the whole presidency. (20) The history of the Secondary Training College, Bombay opened a new chapter in the history of the STEP in the Presidency. (21) In the Presidency, inspite of the worthy recommendations of the Sadler commission, there was no any further progress in the STEP although the number of secondary training colleges were increased and the Departments of Education were opened in the other universities. (22) In the Presidency, during the Diarchy period, because of the world war, non co-operation movement launched by M. Gandhi, Retrenchment policy of the Government and lack of funds, the STEP got adversely affected. (23) In the presidency, during the Diarchy period, the apathy of DPIs to implement the recommendations of the Hartog committee, further put obstacles in the growth of STEP, although in other provinces the recommendations of the committee were implemented. (24) The presidency, during the Provincial Autonomy period, was then ruled by the Provincial Government formed by the elective representatives. The representatives knew the needs, dreams and aspirations of the public and they were ambitious to fulfill them. This also resulted in the remarkable growth of STEP. (25) In the presidency during the Provincial Autonomy period, the remarkable growth occurred in the quantity and quality of the STEP. The number of Secondary Training Colleges increased from 1 to 8 in this short period and also variety of teacher training courses were instituted in this period. (26) In the Maharashtra state the recommendations of the Ghate-Parulekar committee resulted in the practice of deputation of teachers for training and higher pay scales for the trained teachers. This resulted in the increase in trained graduate teaches. (27) The recommendations of the Radhakrishnan Commission resulted in the recommendation of training colleges, revision of syllabi of the STEP and the condition of schools teaching experience for the post of lecturers in ETIs. (28) The recommendations of the Mudaliar Commission resulted in broadening the practical part of the STEP, addition of mental hygiene in the syllabus, the scheme of stipends for student teachers, deputation of teachers for training, change in the recruitment rules of lecturers in TEIs and construction of hostels for student teachers. (29) The recommendations of the Kothari Commission gave new life to the STEP of Maharashtra. The faculty of education and the department of education were started in universities. The education as subject was introduced at graduate level. The school complex scheme was started, the extension services centers were revived, and the comprehensive colleges of education were established. The practical and need based syllabi were framed and the duration of the B.Ed. course increased to minimum 180 days. The self - learning methods, workshops, projects and other practical work were included in the syllabi. The external and internal weightage achieved equal importance in the B.Ed. course. The micro-teaching and internship programs were included in the practice-teaching. Orientation and refresher courses were started. The conditions of double post graduation for the lecture in education was added. The practice of giving developmental grants to improve the quality of TEIs was started and SBTE was instituted to control and co-ordinate the STEP in the state. (30) Dr. Chitra Naik Committee gave further thrust to the growth and development of the STEP in the state. The implementation of the recommendations of the committee resulted in the tradition of periodic revision of the STEP. The outlook of relevance of B.Ed. syllabi with the needs and requirements of schools was given by the committee. The practice of admitting those students to B.Ed. course, who offered school subjects at graduation was started. The SBTE started functioning. The practice of fulfilling minimum conditions while giving affiliation was started by universities. The internal assessment received more weightage in the B.Ed. course. The practice of content test and preparation of teaching aids became compulsory for every student-teacher. The practice teaching program started in the various co-operating schools instead of practicing schools. The block teaching method was adopted for practice teaching and internship activity was added in the practical part of B.Ed. course. The self-study method, library work, work experience and community service were also added in the practical part of B.Ed. course. The post of method master were abolished and the qualifications of teacher-educators were raised. The scheme of graduation of D.Ed. colleges started and research in education was enhanced in the state. (31) The Teacher Education Curriculum – A Framework also helped for the further enrichment of the STEP in the state. The implementation of framework resulted in change of nomenclature of papers, addition of content cum methodology subject, working with community, optional papers and practical work for every paper. The bookishness of the syllabus was reduced and need based and task oriented syllabi were framed. The equal weightage were given to external and internal marks. The lesson examination was abandoned by many universities. Internship activity was introduced. The content of papers were made more practical, useful and relevant to the needs of a teacher and the grading system was started in many universities in the state. (32) The Parvatibai Malgonda Committee also helped for the further development of STEP. Implementation of the recommendations of the committee resulted in addition of content-cum – methodology, workshops, working with community, content papers in method papers in some universities and reviving the functioning of SBTE. (33) The recommendations of the Chattopatdhaya Commission were not implemented to the full extent. However, the pay scales of the secondary teachers were revised as per the recommendations of the Commission. (34) The New Education Policy (NEP-1986) gave further boost to the development of the STEP. The Programme of Action (POA) of the NEP resulted in the compulsory pre-service and in-service education of teachers at all levels, revision of the B.Ed. syllabi in the light of the core elements as stated in the NEP, establishment of DIETS, CTE and AISE, accreditation of TEIs, autonomy to TEIs and the SCERT were made more comprehensive. (35) The sudden, unnatural birth of unaided colleges of education occurred on a large scale without consideration of demand and supply principle. (36) Once a time, there were large number of complaints, court cases and agitations regarding the corruption, commercialization, malpractices and modus operandi of these colleges. (37) The Central Admission System has being implemented. (38) The convictions and practices regarding the training of secondary teachers in England has its reflections in the contemporary India were also observed frequently especially before independence. (39) The political changes, recommendations of the various commissions and the views of higher authorities greatly affected the growth and development of the STEP. (40) The SETP has changed its tune and face in due course of time to meet the needs of hour and till the STEP is gradually but continuously evolving, enlarging and enriching to meet challenges and change. (41) Majority of TEIs were under general management. (42) Majority of the TEIs had temporary affiliations. (43) Majority of the TEIs run B.Ed. (regular) course only. (44) There is a negligible percentage of TEIs, which have undertaken extra activities, centers, special schemes or innovative programs. (45) Majority of the TEIs have their own building. (46) Generally, TEIs have adequate playground, office rooms, staff rooms, class-rooms, student-rooms and library rooms, however, the subject room, audio-visual room, psychology room and science room are available in few TEIs, while the Principal’s quarters, gents and ladies hostel facilities are not available in the majority of TEIs. (47) Generally, TEIs have adequate general facilities, furniture, library and equipments for psychology, and science, S.U.P.W., audio-visual aids and for cultural activities. (48) Majority of TEIs have adequate teaching staff. (49) Majority of TEIs at least one or more M.Phil. or Ph.D. holder lecturers. (50) Majority of the TEIs are short of NET/SET passed lecturers. (51) Normally, TEIs have one or more lectures on the staff who have completed orientation or refresher courses. (52) Most of the TEIs are short of special teachers. (53) Majority of TEIs have intake capacity of 80 students. (54) Normally, the appropriate number of students are admitted by the Central Admission Committee of the university. (55) Majority of TEIs have Marathi as a medium of instruction. (56) Normally, TEIs provide for the commonest school subjects as the methods of teaching. (57) The provision for Sanskrit, Urdu and Gujarati methods is negligible. (58) The provision for economics, civics, and commerce is very less. (59) There is no provision for special methods in subjects like politics, philosophy, sociology and others which are required for junior college teachers. (60) There is a negligible percentage of TEIs, which provide for the special fields like, environmental education, rural education, library service, action research, computer education and guidance and counseling. (61) The most of the TEIs use compulsory attendance and periodical tests for the better performance in theory examination. (62) In most of the TEIs, microteaching, evaluation, audio visual aids and S.U.P.W. workshops are conducted. (63) In a very few TEIs, workshops on content-cum-methodology, lesson planning, action research, population education, social service, camp and communication technique are conducted. (64) The most of the TEIs select questioning, and stimulus variation as skills for training the student teachers. (65) The most of the TEIs arrange 1 to 3 demonstration lessons per method. (66) The demonstration lessons are organized with the help of the lecturer teaching the method, lecturers who offered the method, best ex-students in practice teaching and best experienced school teachers. (67) Generally, practice-teaching program (PTP) is organized either by block teaching or by consecutive method. (68) In most of the TEIs, primary and secondary classes are used for the PTP. (69) Normally, the guidance for a lesson is given by the method lecturer and by the lecturers who offered the method. (70) The practice-teaching lessons are supervised by the lecturer teaching the method and the lecturers who offered the method. (71) Normally, practice-teaching lessons are evaluated by observing generally impact of the lesson on a class. (72) Normally, student-teachers observe lessons by using a questionnaire. (73) TEIs have varying number of co-operating schools. (74) With help of the student council various co-curricular activities are organized in the TEIs. (75) Very few TEIs have old student association. (76) The large variations are observed in off-campus co-curricular activities. (77) The trips, visits, social service camps and sharmadan are the common off campus co-curricular activities. (78) The co-curricular activities are mostly compulsory and for that necessary training is given to student teachers. (79) The evaluation of student-teachers for participation in co-curricular activities is done by awarding marks. (80) A very high percentage of passing B.Ed. examination is observed. (81) The B.Ed. course is much relevant to the needs of secondary schools. (82) The B.Ed. course is much useful to prepare for the various functions of a secondary teacher in a school. (83) The B.Ed. course is generally useful for formation of favorable attitude for teaching profession. (84) The B.Ed. course is much useful for acquiring teaching skills. (85) The B.Ed. course is generally relevant to the professional needs of a teacher. (86) The B.Ed. course is much useful for a teacher to understand his role in development of a child. (87) The theory part of a B.Ed. course is much useful for the roles of a secondary teacher in a school. (88) The practicum part of a B.Ed. course is much useful for the roles of a secondary teacher in a school. (89) The methods and techniques of practice-teaching are much useful for normal class-room teaching. (90) Demonstration lessons are much useful for conducting practice-teaching lessons. (91) Micro lessons are much useful for conducting practice teaching lessons. (92) According to teacher-educators, lesson-guidance is compulsory useful, while according to teacher, the same is useful for conducting practice teaching lessons. (93) Lesson observations are much useful for conducting practice-teaching lessons. (94) Lessons supervisions are much useful for conducting practice teaching lessons. (95) Workshops are much useful for conducting practice-teaching lessons. (96) According to teacher educators, psychology experiments are generally useful while, according to teachers, the same are much useful for conducting practice-teaching lessons. (97) The co-curricular activities conducted in B.Ed. course are much useful for teachers in a school. (98) The B.Ed. course is much useful in understanding new concepts, methods and techniques in education. (99) The B.Ed. course is academically much useful to teachers. (100) The duration of a B.Ed. course is insufficient. (101) The theory part, practical part, number of lessons and co-curricular activities of B.Ed. course are sufficient. (102) The lesson examination, oral examination, internal marking, paper wise practical work, paper wise library work, content enrichment paper, internship, action research project, training in child guidance, marks for co-curricular activities, preparation of educational aids, ceiling on internal marks are desired by more than 75% of teacher-educators and teachers. (103) The ceiling on number of method subjects, provision to take lessons in junior colleges for qualified teachers and provision to take few lessons in primary and D.Ed. classes are desired by teacher-educators. (104) The sufficient school teaching experience for a teacher educators, regular teaching of the method subjects by a teacher-educator in school and an opportunity to innovative teachers to teach B.Ed. class are desired by more than 70% of the teacher educators. (25) Central admission system, economic and academic autonomy to TEIs, Accreditation of TEIs, curricula and of teacher educators, condition of inservice training, post-graduation and NET/SET examination for teacher educators, isolation of principal’s post and the post of special teachers in TEIs are desired by more than 70% of the teacher educators. (106) Generally, the physical facilities in TEIs are satisfactory. (107) Generally, in TEIs, teaching-learning activities are satisfactory. (108) The majority of teacher educators desired that the duration of B.Ed. course should be of two academic years. (109) The most of the teacher-educators desired 10:1 student teachers - teacher educators ratio. (110) The most of the teacher-educators desired that the number of practice-teaching lessons should be 30 or 20. (111) The most of the teacher-educators desired that, the total marks for the B.Ed. course should be 1000 marks. (112) The most of the teacher-educators desired that the distribution of external and internal marks should be 500 and 500 marks.
Keyword(s): Pre-Service Training, Secondary Teachers , Maharashtra State