1. To identify the environmental problems in a tribal area. 2. To study the state of environmental awareness, attitude and interest of the tribals of the study area. 3. To study the socio-economic and cultural factors responsible for the key environmental problems of the study area. 4. To design community based environmental education strategies adopted to the key environmental problems. 5. To assess the impact of community based interventions on solution of environmental problems in the area. 6. To develop a frame work for Environmental Education adopted to the tribals of the study area.
A tribal habitation belonging to a Tribal Sub-plan area is considered as a unit for the purpose of case study.Paraja habitations of the district, geographically contiguous, were selected for the purpose of case study. Paraja tribal community is one among the major tribal communities of Koraput district, Orissa. purposive [Chein, 1981) or Criterion based Sampling Technique (Goetz and Le Compte, 1984; Reported in Merriam, 1988) was followed for the purpose of ensuring representation of typical characteristics, unique characteristics, extreme characteristics and ideal characteristics. The paraja are dispersed throughout the district of Koraput and are of different types, viz. Sodia or Bada Paraja, Jodia Paraja, Penga Paraja and Konda or Selia Paraja. These Parajas are at different stages of transformation. The state of their transformation has largely been influenced by their types, associations with the people of SC and General category and place of residence. The Bada Paraja are considered to be highest social ranking as compared to others. They follow Hindu tradition, do not eat beef and buffalo meat and observe elaborate purification rituals even when a cow or buffalo dies in their households. On the other hand the Selia or Konda Paraja are considered to be the most primitive than others. Selection of key informants involves various sampling techniques, viz. Multiple sampling and incidental sampling.
The following tools and techniques were used in the collection of data. Household Survey Schedule used to collect information from 205 households pertaining to family occupation, income and saving, number of children, agricultural practices, food and drink habits, live-stock, movable and immovable property etc. Semi-Structured Interview Schedule prepared by the investigator was used to collect data from the key pertaining to their level of environmental awareness. Two Structured Interview Schedules were used to collect data from the informants pertaining to their environmental interest and environmental attitude. An interview schedule developed by the investigator was used to explore the environmental interest of the informants, in a three-point scale (Yes, Undecided, No). The other interview schedule developed by the investigator was used to study the attitude of the informants, in a three point scale (Yes,Undecided, No), towards certain agricultural practices, large / small family size, plantation in and around the village, forest protection, tree felling, use of chemical fertilizer, hunting etc. Observation checklist prepared by the researcher during the first stage of visit to the research sites, i.e. during the identification of problems and survey of environmental awareness environmental interest and environmental attitude. It is designed to observe and check basically the family resources and standard of living; health and sanitary condition of the subject; home environment, agricultural practices. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Focus group discussions were conducted to collect data from the community at different stages of project activity. The key points for focus group discussion at this stage include: (i) Community resources, including land, water and forest (ii) Disposal of wastes and environmental sanitation (iii) Sources of water and water pollution (iv) Environmental awareness, interest and attitude of the community. (v) Common diseases (vi) Plantation (vii) Agricultural practices (viii) Personal hygiene (ix) Land use (x) Family planning The focus group discussion conducted after project intervention aimed to assess the level of community participation in the project implementation, the state of environmental awareness, attitude and interest of the community; utilization of resources by the community for its progress, and above all the sustainability of the community based environmental education. Field Notes Field notes of interviews and discussions with people.
The research design is based on the principles of Ethnographic case study (Yin, 1994; cited in Jessop, 1998; Merriam, 1998).
The data were analysed mostly using qualitative techniques i.e. describing attitude, events, behaviour or relationships. However, simple quantitative techniques such as frequencies and percentage were also employed to supplement and substantiate qualitative analysis.
Findings i. Majority of the paraja are aware that the upper layer of the land is more fertile as compared to that of the lower layer. The paraja normally do not use chemical fertilizers to yield more crops. The economy of the paraja is forest based. They collect their essentials such as food, fuel, furniture and fodder for cattle from the forest. ii. As high as 76.92% of the paraja are found to be aware of the fact that shifting cultivation results in degradation of forest. iii. The paraja are aware of the consequences of forest degradation such as low rainfall; dearth of fuel fodder, timberwood, edible roots, medicinal plants and leafs vegetables etc. iv. The average family size among the paraja of the study area is 4.1 which is more than desirable. v. Both knowledge and use of contraceptives is higher among the male paraja as compared to their female counterparts. vi. Majority of the paraja disapprove the use of contraceptive among the women on the ground that their use results in different types of health hazards including abdomenal pain, headache, irregular menstruation and general weakness etc. vii. The paraja prefer early marriage as a matter of convention as high as 52.08% of the men and 78.33% of the women are not aware of the minimum age fixed by the govt. for the marriage of man and woman. viii. The paraja do not observe safety rules to protect water from being polluted. Despite, their awareness about the factors of water pollution. ix. The paraja houses do not contain windows for ventilation. Despite, they cook their food in the room used for all purposes. x. The paraja normally suffer from malaria and dysentery throughout the year. They do not use mosquito-net. xi. majority of the tribals, of the study area (51.10%) possess low interest in environmental activities. As low as 8.24% of the respondents possess high interest; and 40.66% possess average interest in environmental activities. xii. The percentage of respondents with high interest in activities pertaining to eight aspects of the environment viz. Land, Forest, Air, Water, Hygiene and Population. Vary between 9.34% and of average level of interest vary between 48.90%. xiii. Very low percentage of the tribals of the study area (11.53%) possess favourable attitude towards there environment. The percentage of tribals with average and unfavourable attitude are 40.55 and 44.39 respectively. xiv. The percentage of tribals of he study area with favourable attitude in respect of six aspects of the environment.
Keyword(s): Community Based, Environmental Education, Environmental Problems, Ethnographic , Case Study