The study had following objectives: (1) To study differences in frustration-aggression responses between the sample of working and non-working children below the age of 16. (2) To examine the differences in the adjustment pattern of the working and non-working children. (3) To study the difference in the self-concept of the non-working and working children below the age of 16. (4) To examine the relationship between frustration-aggression and adjustment patterns of the two groups of children (working and non-working). (5) To examine the relationship between frustration-aggression and self-concept of the working and non-working. (6) To study the relationship between adjustment and self-concept of working and non-working children.
The hypothesis of the study are: (1) It was presumed that the working children would be high on frustration as compared to the non-working children. (2) It was also assumed that the working children would be high on aggression as compared to the non-working children. (3) Working children would be low in adjustment as compared to non-working children. (4) Working children would have a better self-concept as compared to the non-working children. (5) It may be said that if a child is not adjusted properly there is going to be a certain amount of frustration, which may lead to aggressive responses. That is, there will be positive correlation between frustration level and aggressive behavior. (6) Following the above hypotheses, it was also assumed that frustration would be positively correlated with adjustment levels in all areas. (7) It was also assumed that aggression would also be positively correlated with adjustment levels in all the areas. (8) There would be a negative relationship between frustration and self-concept. It may be said that if a child highly frustrated he may show low self-concept. There will be negative correlation between aggression and self-concept. (9) Adjustment level and self-concept would be positively correlated.
The sample consisted of 150 children (75 working and 75 non-working) hailing from lower socio-economic strata falling between the age group of 13 to 16 years of age of slum area of Baroda.
Tools used for measuring the variable were: Frustration Scale (Split-half reliability = 067, test-retest reliability = 0.59, factor validity values were 0.81 and 0.76), Aggression scale (split-half reliability = 0.79, test-retest reliability = 0.53, content and factor analysis validity .892) constructed and standardized by the investigator, Adjustment Inventory by Bell (Hindi version by Mohsin & Hassain), and self-concept Questionnaire by Saraswat.
The study was descriptive type.
Data were analyzed by using t’-test and product movement correlation techniques.
The study had following findings: (1) Working children were not found to be frustrated as compared to the non-working children. (2) Working children were found to be less aggressive. (3) Working children found to be socially maladjusted and they showed poor adjustment at home. (4) Working children were found to have a better self-concept as compared to the non-working children. (5) Children who were less frustrated showed less aggression. (6) Working children were better adjusted and showed no frustrating behavior. (7) Working children were found to be equally well adjusted as compared to the non-working children with no sign of aggression. (8) Children who had better concept were less frustrated than children with low self-concept. (9) Children who had better self-concept were less frustrated than children with low self-concept. (10) The working children with positive self-concept would be low on frustration level. (11) Working children had positive self-concept.
Keyword(s): Comparative Study, Working and Non-Working, Self-Concept, Psychology of Education, Frustration, Aggression, Adjustment Patterns