To identify the Parenting Style of mothers of adolescent children. To explore the relationship between each of the Parenting Styles with each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics of mothers of adolescence.To examine how each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics will differentiate between the Parenting Styles adopted by mothers of adolescent children. To examine how each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics will differentiate between the contrasted groups (formed within the sample of mothers selected for the study). To assess the association between Parenting Styles of mothers of adolescent children with respect to the contrasted groups (formed within the sample of mothers selected for the study) To explore the influence of the Motivational Personality Characteristics on each of the Parenting Style adopted by mothers of adolescent children. Develop a multiple regression equation for predicting each one of the Parenting Styles selected for study using an appropriate combination of the three motivational variables using multiple regression equations.
The major hypotheses set for the study are listed below: H1. The overt behaviour representing the parenting style adopted by a mother dealing with any parenting situation will be decided by certain affective motivations present in the personality structure of mother and this will be visible in the form of high correlation between each of the parenting styles with each of the motivational personality characteristics. H2. Each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics will evince significant difference based on the Parenting Styles adopted by mothers of adolescent children. H3. Each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics will evince significant difference based on contrasted groups selected for the study (formed with in the sample of mothers selected for study). H4. Parenting Styles of mothers of adolescent children will evince significant association between the contrasted groups selected for the study (formed with in the sample of mothers selected for study). H5. Each of the Motivational Personality Characteristics will significantly influence the Parenting Styles of mothers of adolescent children.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY A population is any group of individuals that has one or more characteristics in common and that are of interest to the researcher. Population is defined as a group of individuals with atleast one characteristic which distinguishes that group from other individuals (Best and Khan, 2012). It is a group to which a researcher would like to get the result of a study to be generalized. The population of the present study consists of mothers belonging to three districts of Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Alleppey). The small group which represented the population formed the sample of the present study. Sampling is the technique or process of selecting a sample from the population. From the whole sample (mothers of adolescent children) of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Alleppey districts, only 800 mothers of adolescent children were selected as sample. Here in the present study the investigator followed Stratified Random Sampling techniques for the sample selection from the population. The stratification was done on the basis of Educational status (Upto SSLC/Secondary, Upto Pre Degree/Plus Two and Graduation and above/Diploma), Place of Residence (Rural-Urban) and Working Status (Working-Non working) of mothers of adolescent children. Statistical techniques used Percentage analysis ( distribution of Parenting Styles) Descriptive statistics Mean, SD, Median, Skewness, Kurtosis(Motivational Personality Characteristics) Product Moment Correlation (find out the relationship between dependent variables (each of the parenting styles) with independent variables (each of the motivational personality characteristics of mothers of adolescent children) Independent sample t test (comparing the Motivational Personality Characteristics based on the contrasted groups) One way ANOVA and post hoc test Scheffe multiple comparison (comparing the Motivational Personality Characteristics based on the parenting styles) Chi square test (association between Parenting Styles with selected contrasted groups) Multiple Logistic Regression Dependent variable : Parenting styles, Independent variables motivational personality characteristics -Humanity- Esteem , Goal-Orientation and Self-Efficacy(influence of motivational personality characteristics on each of the Parenting styles).
The study has been conceived around three independent variables, one dependent variable and three background variables as detailed in an earlier context in the present chapter. The dependent variable Parenting Styles were measured using a generalized test of Parenting Styles (with thirty questions to measure the three dimensions of Parenting Styles) constructed by John R. Buri. The independent variables selected for the study has measured using generalized tests, prepared and standardized by the investigator and the Research Supervisor. The demographic details (Educational Qualification, Place of Residence and Working Status of mothers) were assessed using a General Data Sheet. The tools used were those which have been developed using sophisticated psychometric procedures by experts in Psychological/educational testing and have demonstrated high levels of validity and reliability. The tools were listed below: Parenting Style Inventory by John R. Buri (1991). Three tools (Prepared by the investigator and the Research Supervisor) i. Goal-orientation Scale of Personality ii. Self Efficacy Scale of Personality iii. Humanity- Esteem Scale of Personality and General Data Sheet
Research Design of the Study Research design is a mapping strategy which is based on the sampling technique. It essentially includes objectives, sampling, research strategy, tools and techniques for collecting the evidences, analysing the data and reporting findings. In fact the research design refers to the conceptual framework within which the research is conducted. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypotheses to the final analysis of data. The investigator carried out the present study in five phases. The first phase is the descriptive section including the selection of variables, setting of hypotheses, understanding the nature of the sample, reviewing various theories and studies related to problem of study and finalise the procedure of the study. The second phase consisted of preparation of preliminary tool for the construction and validation of the required tools for obtaining the data, and selecting the sample size and decided the contrasted groups under study. Third phase is the survey section to collect the data. The fourth phase is the analysing section, scrutinizing the response sheets, eliminating the incomplete responses, finalised the total sample for the study, tabulated the response sheets based on the selected contrasted groups, sorting data for analysis, computed and tabulated the obtained data using suitable statistical procedures continued by interpreting or reporting. The fifth phase is report- writing, drafting the various concepts and theories under the study, drafting the methodology through the procedure selected, standardization procedure and modification of adopted tool, interpreted the data and results in detail, checking the tenability of hypotheses, preparing the conclusions, implications and suggestions for further research, setting the bibliography and arranged the appendices. Dependent Variables Parenting Styles of Mothers i. Authoritarian Parenting Style ii. Authoritative Parenting Style iii. Permissive Parenting Style Independent Variables Three Motivational Personality Variables (of mothers selected for study) viz; i. Goal-Orientation ii. Self-Efficacy iii. Humanity- Esteem. Background Variables Three groups of variables have been included under the study are: i. Educational Qualification of mothers Upto SSLC/Secondary Upto Pre-Degree/Plus two Graduation and above/ Diploma ii. Place of Residence.
The major conclusions emerged from the objectives of the study are summarized and presented below in the order of the objectives: Parenting Style of mothers of adolescent children The dependent variable- Parenting Styles- selected for the study was identified with respect to the number and percentage and categorized according to the three dimensions, viz., Authoritarian Parenting Style, Authoritative Parenting Style and Permissive Parenting Style and on the basis of Educational Qualification, Working Status and Place of Residence. The study found that majority of mothers of adolescent children adopted an Authoritative Parenting Style for their child rearing practices. Only a minority of mothers adopted Authoritarian Parenting Style and Permissive Parenting Style. From the three dimensions of parenting majority of mothers were educationally qualified up to Pre Degree or Plus Two level. Categorization on the basis of Working Status of mothers of adolescents indicated that majority of the Authoritarian and Authoritative mothers were working and Permissive mothers a large number of subjects are not yet working. That means the mothers those have adopted Permissive Parenting Styles majority of them were not working and their role was that of home makers. In the case of Place of Residence the majority of mothers selected under the study were residing at urban areas. Relationship between each of the parenting styles with each of the motivational personality characteristics of mothers of adolescent children The study yielded significant correlations for each of the dependent variables with each of the independent variables covered by the study. The significant correlations were obtained not only for the whole sample, but also for the sub sample based on the Parenting Styles adopted by mothers of adolescent children. The correlations of Parenting Styles to each of the independent variables registered significant positive values. A consolidated table of the product-moment coefficients of correlation of each of the dependent variables and each of the independent variables are presented in Table 42. Table 42 Consolidated table of the product-moment coefficients of correlation of each of the dependent variables and each of the independent variables Variables N Correlation Coefficient Level of Significance Dependent Variable Independent Variables Authoritarian Parenting Humanity- Esteem 113 0.578 0.01 Goal-Orientation 0.642 0.01 Self-Efficacy 0.554 0.01 Authoritative Parenting
The important results of the study have been interpreted and used to evolve some practical and relevant suggestions for improving the present conditions and also identify various areas of such crucial issues in our society for further study, which will help to explain the results of the present study. The major conclusions stated above are supported by the following findings: 1. Majority of the mothers of adolescent children perceived Parenting Style as Authoritative. 2. The correlation coefficient between Parenting styles and Humanity-Esteem was found to be 0.672 (whole sample, N=547); 0.639 (Goal-Orientation); 0.647 (Self-Efficacy). The correlation coefficients for the whole sample are significant at 0.01 levels. 3. The correlation coefficient between Authoritarian Parenting styles and Humanity-Esteem was found to be 0.578 (N=113); 0.642 (Goal-Orientation); 0.554 (Self-Efficacy). The correlation coefficients for the whole sample are significant at 0.01 levels. 4. The correlation coefficient between Authoritative Parenting styles and Humanity-Esteem was found to be 0.722 (N=311); 0.707 (Goal-Orientation); 0.730 (Self-Efficacy). The correlation coefficients for the whole sample are significant at 0.01 levels. 5. The correlation coefficient between Permissive Parenting styles and Humanity-Esteem was found to be 0.653 (N=123); 0.605 (Goal-Orientation); 0.659 (Self-Efficacy). The correlation coefficients for the whole sample are significant at 0.01 levels. The four findings mentioned above from No.2 to No.5 correspond to the first hypothesis H1, the tenability of which will be detailed in the subsequent part of this chapter. 6. The F values of selected variables other than Self-Efficacy shows no significant differences when the selected sample is divided on the basis of Parenting Styles. Humanity-Esteem (F= 2.91) Goal-Orientation (F= 2.526) Self-Efficacy (F= 6.313*) *Significant at 0.01 level The findings stated pertain to the second hypothesis H2, the tenability of which will be detailed in the subsequent part of this chapter. 7. The F values of selected variables other than Goal-Orientation shows no significant differences when the selected sample is divided on the basis of Educational Qualification of mothers of adolescent children. Humanity-Esteem (F= 2.585) Goal-Orientation (F= 5.246*) Self-Efficacy (F= 1.722) *Significant at 0.01 level 8. The independent variables Humanity-Esteem, Goal-Orientation and Self-Efficacy do not show significant difference.
The findings of the present study has implications for developing a better understanding about the motivational personality characteristics and parenting styles with special reference to mothers of adolescent children. The contributions of the present study in the field of education, as identified by the investigator are outlined as;The study would throw new light on the way the dimensions of Parenting Styles used in the study adopted by the mothers of adolescent children. The findings would help researchers to develop a more adequate theoretical framework for understanding the differences in way of parenting and for conceiving the relative roles of personality in child rearing practices as applied to the stage of adolescence. The study gives enlightenment on the construction of a relevant tool- for Goal-Orientation, Humanity-Esteem and Self-Efficacy- which give emphasis on the present social and educational scenario, incorporated with the values and social issues. The findings would help the teachers, researchers, social activators to explore the importance of women education, especially maternal education and makes awareness on the society why maternal education is important and its relevance in the developmental stages of children. Findings of the study use a suitable path to explain the correct and exact meaning of the phrase, Literate women have literate families. The present study give an attention to all of us about the importance of education and the role of education in the construction of a moral and creative society and clearly states that this construction is starting from the home itself. Developing more adequate theories relating to Parenting Styles and Motivational Personality Characteristics The study gave broad indication of Motivational Personality Characteristics which (along with Place of Residence, Educational Qualification of mothers and their Working Status) exert a dominant influence on Parenting Styles of mothers of adolescent children. If we consider isolate any one independent variable, Humanity-Esteem of mothers of adolescent children, as crucial in determining the Parenting Styles, it follows that any developmental or attachment theories relating to personality and motivation should be built upon the role or effect of this variable on parent child rearing practices. The question whether the variable has a direct or indirect influence on Parenting Styles will decide the nature of theories.
Keyword(s): Motivational Personality , parenting styles., personality, characteristics of mothers