The objectives of this study were: (1) To prepare Linear Programmed Learning Material (PLM) on Balanced Diet and Deficiency Diseases’ based on the two units of Science textbook of Standard X. (2) To try-out and finalise the prepared PLM based on error rate. (3) To study the effectiveness of PLM as a method of teaching in comparison with Lecture Method (LM) in terms of students’ achievement on pre-test and criterion test. (4) To study the main and interaction effects of sex, intelligence and category of caste in terms of students’ achievement. (5) To study the effectiveness of PLM in comparison with Lecture Method in terms of students’ achievement on criterion test in the context of selected variables. (6) To study the effectiveness of PLM in terms of students’ reaction towards PLM.
The sample comprised of 540 students of five co-education schools of Ahmedabad city. The schools were selected with purposive method. Two classes were randomly selected from each school.
Prior to the treatment, a pre-test and Desai Verbal - Non verbal Group Intelligence Test were administered. The EG learned through the PLM in the presence of the investigator, while the CG was taught through the lecture method by the regular teachers.
It was an experimental study based on Pretest - Post test Non-equivalent Control Group Design. One class was randomly treated as Experimental Group (EG) and the other as Control Group (CG). The experiment was conducted during July-August 1998. The PLM was prepared on Balanced Diet and Deficiency Diseases’ with the help of the Science textbook of Std. X, other reference material and the suggestions of subject experts. It underwent four stages of construction, namely, Planning, Writing the programme, Try-outs and Revision and Evaluation of the final draft.
At the end of the experiment, a criterion test was administered to both the groups. The reliability of the test was established through test - retest method (r = 0.76). The content validity was established with the help of the experts. The EG was administered a reaction scale also. The data were analyzed applying t-test and 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 Factorial Design ANOVA. Intensity Index on each statement was computed for testing students’ reaction towards PLM.
(1) Both PLM and LM were found to be effective in terms of students’ achievement on the criterion test yet, PLM was significantly superior to LM. (2) The main effect of each of the five variables – treatment, sex, intelligence, test and category of caste- was significant on students’ achievement. (3) Majority of two-way, three-way and four-way interactions of variables did not produce any significant effect on students’ achievement. (4) The interaction of all the five variables did not produce significant effect on students’ achievement. (5) Intelligence and category of caste worked as influencing factors to determine students’ achievement in both the groups. Sex was the determining factor in the LM but not in the PLM group. (6) PLM was significantly superior to LM in terms of all selected variables. (7) PLM was found to be very effective in terms of students’ reaction towards it.
Keyword(s): Educational Technology, Programmed Learning Material , Food and Nutrition, Xth standard, Science textbook, Gujarat State