A, Vijapure M. (2000). A Critical Study of the Educational Problems of Women Studying at the Post-Graduate Courses. Unpublished. Ph.D., Education. Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra.
The objectives of study were: (1) To find out problems faced by the women studying at postgraduate level. (2) To analyse these problems in terms of their causes. (3) To suggest ways and means for solving these problems.
The sample of observation was: (a) Kolhapur district – 32 colleges, (b)
Sangli district – 10 colleges, (c) Satara district – 14 colleges, and
(d) Solapur district – 12 colleges. By means of actual visits to these
colleges/P.G. centers, the researcher observed the teaching,
co-curricular activities, libraries, study-room, play grounds, hostel
room, etc. The researcher had prepared an observation schedule for
observing these various factors.
Questionnaires, individual and group interviews, actual visits and observations were the tools used to collect the data for this research. Questionnaires: Three different questionnaires were used to collect the data necessary for this research (a) Questionnaire No. 1- For the women studying in postgraduate. (b) Questionnaire No. 2 – For girls students for whom a research activity is an essential and integral part for partial completion of postgraduate education. (c) Questionnaire No. 3 – For the women students staying in hostels. These questionnaires were given to 25 women students, studying in postgraduate in 8 different colleges. The questionnaire consisted of open type, closed type and mixed type question. The questionnaire was distributed by the researcher to women studying at postgraduate level in sixty eight post-graduate centres affiliated to the Shivaji University, Kolhapur and located in the four districts of Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara and Solapur. The district-wise filled in questionnaires received were: (i) Kolhapur – 308 students, (ii) Sangli – 226 students, (iii) Satara – 138 students, and (iv) Solapur – 315 students. For studying the problems, Questionnaire No. 2 was prepared. The researcher personally visited the students, distributed the questionnaires and asked the students to respond it by duly filing in their answer. A total of 202 questionnaires were filled in by the respondents. Questionnaire No. 3 was prepared for those women who were staying in the hostels during their PG courses. This questionnaire contained questions based on: The conditions and circumstances in the hostel, Problems faced during the residence in hostels, and Outlook / point of view regarding staying in hostels. This questionnaire was given by the researcher to the women studying in postgraduate and living in fifteen different hostels in the four districts of Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara and Solapur. 130 questionnaires were filled in by the respondents. By using interview schedule, researcher interviewed 50 women students (group-wise and personal). For hostel-residing women, another interview schedule was prepared and 28 women, who were hostel residents, were interviewed group-wise. Researcher personally interviewed the hostel superintendents and came to know their opinions regarding higher education of women.
This research is related to the present age and circumstances. The survey method has been used.
The data were analyzed with the help of content analysis and by computing percentages.
The findings of study were: (1) In majority of the cases of girls studying in postgraduate, it has been observed that the mother, father and husbands have been educated upto different levels, that is, from the primary stage to the postgraduate stage. Hence, it may be concluded that the education acquired by the mother, father and husbands of the girls and the education being acquired by the girls of postgraduate bear a close relationship. (2) People who oppose the girls’ education are the illiterate village women, uncles and aunts on both parents’ sides, other relatives, mothers’ friends, illiterate neighbors, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, fathers’ friends etc. It may be due to negative outlook, traditional thinking about girls’ marriages, insecure social conditions, outdated thought patterns, and family circumstances. (3) Girls would be going to their in-laws homes and so their parents should not spend money on their education. From the responses, it is obvious that parents of 100 girls (10.13%) endorsed this attitude, but a large majority i.e. parents of 887 girls (89.87%) do not express such an opinion. (4) Parents of 90 girls (9.12%) are of the opinion that girls do not remain obedient after receiving education. (5) In case of 168 girls (17.02%), their brothers get more family encouragement to acquire education, but in case of 819 girls (82.98%), such differentiating attitude is absent i.e. girls are not treated as lesser students because they are girls. (6) Only in case of 22 girls (2.22%), their differences of opinion with family seniors do interfere with their education. (7) 517 girls (52.38%) feel that their acquiring postgraduate education will create difficulties in the path of their marriage. Such difficulties will primarily be of the two kinds: (a) difficulties in finding a prospective husband who if not more educated than at least as he should have education equal to that of girl herself, and (b) accepting a husband less educated than oneself may create problems in post-marriage life due to differences in thinking patterns. (8) 447 girls (45.28%) consider education more important than marriage; only 16 girls considered marriage more important than education. 528 girls (53.49%) considered both education and marriage to be important. On the basis of these figures, one can safely conclude that in the case of majority (98.77%) of the girls, the outlook towards education is definitely positive. (9) Women’s education is spreading amongst various castes and tribes. (10) 336 girls (34.14%) derive benefits because of their caste/tribe whereas 650 girls (65.86%) do not derive benefits because of their caste/tribe. (11) 419 girls (42.45%) receive economic concessions from their colleges whereas 569 girls (57.55%) do not receive any such concession. (12) Girls studying at the postgraduate level have various purposes. Such purposes cover a large range, e.g. from acquiring knowledge for the sake of knowledge to acquiring a suitable husband to just a way of passing the time etc. (13) Girls faced different problems while gaining admission to postgraduate courses. The problems are lack of guiding teachers or their cooperation; lack of necessary information; distance between postgraduate centre and residence/place of work; donation for admission; merit-list being caste wise; fault on part of offices and management; strange atmosphere; and irregularities in admission procedures. (14) 556 girls (56.33%) find the medium of instruction itself as a difficult at the postgraduate level. 441 girls (43.67%) do not find the medium as difficult. So, it can be concluded that the medium of instruction is a problem for more than half the number of girl students. (15) 217 girls (21.98%) are of the opinion that teachers do not teach sequentially, 465 girls (47.11%) are of the opinion that teachers do not complete the curriculum in time and 315 girls (31.19%) do not understand the teaching of teachers at all. (16) Girls feel problems in the practical part of their curricula, such as, shortage of equipment and materials, the time schedules of practical are not properly planned, and correct information is not gained. (17) 340 girls (34.44%) said that colleges arrange for out-of-town trips, and 65.56% i.e. 647 girls colleges do not arrange such trips. (18) 118 girls (11.95%) participate in sports, whereas 869 girls (80.05%) do not participate in sports. (19) 56 girls (5.67%) participate in health-and-fitness and sports activities, 68 girls (6.88%) participate in elocution competitions whereas not even one girl participated in a study circle. 31 girls (3.14%) participated in endeavors to develop and maintain creative tastes. No participation is seen in various hobby groups. 57 girls (5.77%) participate in tree-planting program. (20) 72.94% colleges organized debates, seminars and workshops. And in case of 267 girls’ (27.06%) colleges, such events are not organized. (21) 352 girls (35.66%) are in possession of the necessary textbooks whereas 635 girls (64.34%) do not possess the necessary textbooks. (22) The reasons for the girl’s dissatisfaction regarding college libraries are lack of reference books (112 girls – 11.34%); compared to the number of students, the number of books is quite less (162 girls – 16.4%); librarians behave arrogantly (367 girls – 37.18%); instructions written in the library are not clear so it is difficult to understand (410 girls – 41.54%); and there is no guidance as to how the library should be used (417 girls – 42.24%). (23) Girl students face the different problems during their research. The problems are subject of research was enforced (12 girls – 5.9%); necessary and wanted guides were not available (9 girls – 1.4%); guides and girls have differences of opinion and nature (3 girls – 1.4%); sufficient time is not available for research (67 girls 0 33.16%); sufficient books are not available in the library (42 girls – 20.79%); problems are faced in collecting the necessary equipment and materials (56 girls – 27.22%); and financial aid is not available for research (56 girls – 13.86%). (24) 114 girls (87.69) face problems regarding physical amenities. 62 girls (47.69%) face problems because of other girls, 55 girls (42.30%) face problems because of matrons/superintendents. 17 girls (13.07%) face problems regarding safety of their personal possessions in their rooms i.e. problems arise in preventing theft of personal things from their rooms. (25) There are various reasons for the girls’ restlessness, such as, the longing to see family members (115 girls – 88.46%); different language (35 girls – 26.92%); different culture (27 girls – 20.76%); and different variety of food items (120 girls 92.30%).
Keyword(s): Critical Study, Educational Problems , Women , Post-Graduate Courses